Indonesia is ranked as one of the two most important ‘mega-diversity’ countries in the world. Despite covering only 1.3% of the Earth’s land surface, Indonesia contains a high proportion of the world’s species, including 17% of bird, 12% of mammal, 16% of reptile and amphibian,25% of fish, 33% of insects, and 10% of the flowering plant species. This along with a high diversity of cultures make it one of the richest and challenging countries in which to work. WCS recognizes the importance of Indonesia to global conservation, and is working to save its wildlife and wild lands. The Wildlife Conservation Society – Indonesia Program(WCS-IP) began working in Indonesia in 1965 and established a formal country program in 1991. Using a “muddy boots” method to conservation, we identify critical conservation issues, find science based solutions to these problems, and achieve tangible, on-the-ground success that benefits wildlife and wild places.