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    What are Toxic Waste HotSpots?

         Toxic waste hotspots are places where toxic waste accumulates to the greatest extent and where the Earth's toxic pollution is felt most strongly. The situation in such areas is critical and needs to be addressed immediately. Toxins that accumulate in hotspots of Toxic waste through contact with flora, fauna, or humans cause poisoning or destruction that is difficult, if not impossible, to stop.
          The main source of toxic waste pollution are industries that produce consumer goods in demand:
    ● electric power industry;
    ● fuel industry;
    ● Ferrous metallurgy;
    ● non-ferrous metallurgy;
    ● Chemical and petrochemical industries;
    ● metalworking and machine building;
    ● pulp and paper and wood processing industry;
    ● building materials production;
    ● light industry;
    ● food-processing industry;
    ● microbiological industry;
    ● medical industry;
    ● some other types of industries.
         A secondary source of toxic waste is the result of improper human disposal of certain items used in the home. As an example, common drugs begin to disintegrate at the molecular level into harmful components after the expiration date.
         Another example is common garden chemicals used to kill plant diseases. Such mixtures require special toxic waste disposal, as their entry into water bodies and open ground makes life in these environments impossible.

    What are toxic waste examples?

         Sooner or later, up to 98% of everything humans produce becomes waste. A significant portion of this waste falls into toxic, hazardous, or highly hazardous waste.
         Toxic wastes are substances produced by various industries and as a result of improper human disposal of certain consumer items. They must be disposed of and have a toxic effect when released into the environment. The most common toxic "trash" is beryllium, arsenic, lead, chromium, phosphorus, mercury, nickel, cadmium, etc.
         Toxic waste is usually divided into hazard classes according to its impact on the environment and human condition. Thus, the hazards are classified as follows:
    I - huge (mercury-containing devices, fluorescent lights, heated toxic waste). Garbage has a strong toxic effect on the environment. The ecosystem is not restored.
    II - high (reused industrial toxic waste from the oil industry, batteries, acids). It takes 30 years for the ecosystem to recover after the pollution source is eliminated.
    III - moderate (painting materials, impregnation of wood with chemicals) The period of renewal of the environment is 10 years;
    IV - small, low degree of impact of garbage on the environment, the recovery period is 3 years.
         Toxic wastes are inorganic. They are usually man-made chemicals, but also include naturally occurring metals such as mercury and lead, which are highly toxic and are mined for use in paints and other products. There are many sources of hazardous chemical waste including batteries, construction debris, natural gas, fossil fuel combustion, industrial waste, pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers, medical supplies, and raw and waste oil. Known hazardous chemical agents include DDT, 245T, and Agent Orange. Also, toxic wastes are greenhouse gasses such as carbon dioxide and methane.
         Depending on the volume of emissions, their composition, and the method of transportation, there are three types of disposal of toxic waste:
    ● Toxic waste destruction. This type implies recycling into substances that are not hazardous to the environment by their composition.
    ● Toxic waste storage. It means the transportation of hazardous substances to specialized dumps, where toxins can remain without harm to the environment for a certain period (usually several years).
    ● Toxic waste dumping. The most economical form of hazardous waste disposal. Involves the design and construction of special landfills where disposal takes place. Landfills provide an opportunity to store toxic waste for an unlimited period without harming the environment.

    What is the greatest danger of toxic contaminants?

        Humanity's desire for quality, modern products have had unfortunate consequences. Gross mistakes in hazardous  waste disposal in the past decades, ill-conceived industrial projects, and the testing of military equipment and weapons have resulted in:
    ● Erosion and toxic pollution of the land.
    ● Forest degradation.
    ● Pollution of rivers.
    ● Salinization of irrigated land.
    ● Drying of seas.
         Pesticides dumped in areas unfit for human habitation quickly get into the groundwater, which spreads the toxins over vast distances. The result is the poisoning of animals and birds with contaminated water, human deaths from eating contaminated meat, and outbreaks of cancer.
         The insufficient number of landfills for the burial of toxic industrial waste and the lack of plants for neutralization and recycling lead to such a negative phenomenon as the location and accumulation of toxic waste on enterprises' territories. The locations where enterprises store toxic waste barrels often do not meet environmental requirements, which leads to a tense situation and contributes to their entry into unauthorized dumps and other unsuitable places. The bulk of waste is sent to dumps, waste heaps, slime and tailings ponds, landfills, and other accumulators, of which there are many. Significant areas of land are alienated for these storage sites, and most of them do not provide reliable isolation of the environment from pollution.
         The accumulation of waste in landfills and dumps increases toxic waste pollution of the atmosphere, oceans, soil, groundwater, and surface water bodies, disrupts the functioning of ecosystems, and damages agriculture and construction (because it is accompanied by the withdrawal of land from economic turnover). In addition, landfill gas emissions hurt climate change. more
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