The EFICAS Project aims at developing innovative methods and intervention approaches to support farmers’ adoption of climate smart agricultural systems based on conservation agriculture. Over the past decades a large range of technical options have been tested successfully in the northern uplands of Lao PDR to support a sustainable intensification of upland agriculture. For example, diversified cropping systems based on agroecological principles have proved effective in restoring degraded soils and improving agricultural productivity while limiting the use of external chemical inputs. Today, soil conservation techniques are well known by most stakeholders, including village communities, but they are not spontaneously adopted. The reasons for low adoption are often not related to the cropping techniques themselves but to external causes, such as the roaming cattle and buffaloes that damage cover crops, the limited knowledge of existing market outlets, or simply because farmers find it less labor consuming to till their land or to use chemical products instead of organic practices.