The government category provides access to governmental organizations that are focused on sustainability initiatives.
This includes local, state, and federal government bodies.
Environmental Government Agencies are organizations that determine the main directions of ecological policy, approve environmental programs, ensure nature safety, establish legislative framework and norms under their jurisdiction, etc. Along with the protection of the natural environment, state institutions of this category are also responsible for other ecological matters within the limits of their powers. The main purposes of Environmental Government Organizations are to ensure the realization of the human right to a favorable environment, provision of ecological security, prevention of negative impact of economic and other activities on the environment, formation, and implementation of nature protection programs.
All environmental government organizations, depending on the competence and assigned powers, are divided into two types: 1. general, 2. specialized.
General environmental government organizations perform the following functions: ● formation of the main directions of foreign and domestic ecological policy; ● legislative and rule-making activities in the field of environmental sustainability; ● organization of the work of responsible executive authorities; ● ensuring the rights and guarantees of citizens in the field of nature protection and exploitation of environmental sources; ● ensuring coordinated operation of the structure of national environmental management bodies; ● ensuring the implementation of a holistic and systemic state policy in the field of environmental protection and natural resource use.
Specialized competence is the privilege of national structures organized specifically for the implementation of environmental functions. In turn, specialized environmental bodies’ responsibilities are differentiated into the following types: Integrated These agencies are aimed at dealing with the formulation and implementation of tasks for the protection of environmental objects and resources in the process of doing business, capital construction, subsoil exploitation, etc. Complex Environmental governances of complex types at regional and state levels are competent in defining perspective directions of environmental policy, development and implementation of environmental programs, the establishment of environmental limits, standards, and standardization, assessment and forecasting of environmental conditions, imposing and collection of fines for violation of environmental legislation, dissemination of theoretical materials and practical skills of environmental lifestyle to the sphere of education. These organizations are also responsible for international environmental cooperation. Sectoral The role of the environmental agency of this type lies in the field of: ● inspection, control, coordination, and dissemination of environmental activities; ● supervision over compliance with environmental regulations, standards, rules, and limits; ● accumulation of data on the state of the environmental problems; ● making decisions to eliminate the consequences of industrial accidents, natural disasters, and man-made and environmental disasters. Functional support An environmental protection agency of this type performs tasks aimed at developing and implementing promising measures for the rational exploitation and restoration of air, water, land, biological and other types of resources.
To improve the ecology and protect the surrounding nature, the government introduces a set of environmental policies: ● legal protection of the environment in the form of environmental law, instructions, by-laws, and standards that are legally binding for execution; ● incentives in the form of financial rewards; ● maintenance at the state level of technologies and engineering inventions aimed at resource saving. Phased implementation of reforms also takes place. In particular, this requires: ● setting goals and monitoring their implementation (including in the main sectors of the economy) in the short, medium, and long term; мdetermining the sequence of actions; ● choosing the pace of reform that is commensurate with the political, economic, and technical constraints that exist in each country; ● using a wide range of integrated environmental policy instruments (for example, in the field of energy conservation or enforcement of environmental requirements); ● capacity building by the tasks performed. The priority of practical policy implementation should also be mentioned. In this case, the government is engaged in such things: ● A comprehensive approach to planning, budgeting, and monitoring; ● development and adoption of by-laws; ● Increasing the level of interdepartmental coordination and control over the participation of sectoral ministries in the implementation of national environmental policy aims; ● expanding the powers of environmental protection agencies at the sub-national level. Environmental governance creates effective motivations for producers and consumers to improve ecological efficiency at the lowest possible cost. This requires streamlining the entire regulatory system, reforming economic instruments, and applying various incentive instruments to ensur environmental compliance. At the same time, effective demand management is also being developed: tariff and pricing reforms are accompanied by awareness-raising efforts.
There are many examples of positive change and success in all countries of the region and all areas of environmental policy. Even in areas where there seems to be no improvement (e.g., environmental quality standards), positive changes can be explained, at the very least, by an awareness of the need for reform. Progress has been unequal in different policy spheres. It is difficult to compare achievements across goals, but we can say that the most significant improvements have been seen in areas such as environmental law enforcement, water management, and agriculture. Less significant changes are seen in waste management, biodiversity conservation, transportation, and energy conservation. Improvements have been consistent on rare occasions. There are still too few examples of any area of environmental policy in any country that has been reformed systematically. The lack of consistency is not random, but depends on many factors, including the level of donor support, industry lobbying, attention from the country's top leadership, and the political will to change the situation. In this sense, the strategic task is to maximize the use of those factors that are most relevant to a particular country. The legal and regulatory base for environmental policy, while not perfect, is generally well-developed and continues to improve. The most striking example is the widespread introduction of various environmental permits. The main problems are at the level of realization - the lack of appropriate by-laws and a weak enforcement base. The imperfection of implementation mechanisms is especially noticeable at the regional level. But, after all, it is at this level that the main tasks of environmental policy are often solved.